Cardiology

Cardiology

Lessons

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health concern, and diet is believed to play an important role in mediating CVD risk. This webinar will discuss the history and impact of scientific research on nutrition recommendations for a healthy heart and will share practical tips for developing nutrition strategies for treating dyslipidemia today.

As a health professional, you are in a unique position to educate Americans on the importance of diet and nutrition for better health. By providing perspectives on the latest scientific evidence, you can help people weigh the risks and benefits of individual food choices when it comes to reducing CVD risk and improving overall health

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Evaluation

Standard: Free
0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Research shows that smoking is common among many patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is an important modifiable risk factor for recurrent cardiac events. Studies show that smoking cessation after AMI decreases the risk of recurrent heart attacks and mortality by 30% to 50%. Efforts to improve smoking cessation after AMI have become important performance measures throughout the United States, but many smokers still will not quit their habit even after suffering an AMI. Most patient education strategies on smoking cessation focus on the risks from continuing to smoke, but patients may be concerned that quitting will worsen their quality of life. These concerns may lower patients’ motivation and success with quitting. Further compounding the issue is that patients recovering from heart attacks often receive little information about the potential effect of smoking cessation on angina and quality of life. It is well known that smoking after AMI increases risks for recurrent heart attacks and mortality, but few studies have looked at how smoking relates to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in cardiac patients. Understanding the link between smoking cessation and HRQOL could have important implications for smoking prevention and how we treat patients who actively smoke at the time of their AMI. This information may also improve how clinicians counsel patients to quit smoking after their AMI.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free
0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Several years ago, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) published an expert consensus statement on best practices in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) to provide clinicians with standards for pre-, intra-, and post-procedural evaluations and patient management. The document, released in 2012, offered important recommendations for taking a patient-centered approach to safety and quality in the CCL, a setting in which high throughput and increasing patient complexity demand optimal peri-procedural communication, clinical management, documentation, and protocols. In 2016, SCAI updated this consensus statement to better address process standardization in CCLs. Many CCLs had been working under only local regulation and policies. Over the past several years, there has been increasing interest among interventional cardiologists for a comprehensive document that outlines the details on how CCLs should operate.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free
0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION
Mortality relating to heart disease has continued to decrease over the past several years, making the management of patient morbidity increasingly important. This trend coincides with an increased emphasis on managing patients with pericarditis, a disease defined as inflammation of the pericardial sac and that is often characterized by significant morbidity. Most patients with acute pericarditis have a benign course and a good prognosis. However, others will develop complicated pericarditis, which is characterized by incessant, recurrent, chronic, or constrictive disease. Many of these patients will experience severe debilitation because of this chronic disease.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Recent data show that about 55% of children in the United States and 41% of adults have poor dietary patterns. In addition, it is estimated that more than two-thirds of U.S. adults and about one-third of U.S. children are overweight or obese. The intake of foods prepared with refined grains, added sugars, solid fats, and sodium laden-ingredients has contributed to both the obesity epidemic and also increased risks for cardiovascular disease issues, such as like hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. The American Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC) have published guidelines on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk. These guidelines provide details for adopting evidence-based diet and lifestyle behaviors to achieve those goals. In addition, the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans were recently updated and confirm and further address these diet-disease associations.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free
0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Previous research has indicated that mortality following open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (OAR) performed at high-volume hospitals is lower than that of OAR performed at low-volume institutions. Expert groups like the Leapfrog Group have advocated for a minimum volume criterion of 50 OAR cases or more per year as part of an evidence-based hospital referral safety standard. However, the effect of hospital volume on elective endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is currently unclear. There has been a recent push to move AAA repairs to Aortic Centers of Excellence, in which elective AAA patients are triaged to high-volume academic centers. While such initiatives are expected to improve outcomes, it’s important to understand how hospital-level factors may impact postoperative outcomes before this step can be taken.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free
0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

The American Heart Association’s annual scientific sessions attract nearly 18,000 professional attendees, with a global presence from more than 100 countries. In addition, 2 million medical professionals participate virtually in lectures and discussions about basic, translational, clinical and population science. The meeting includes more than 5,000 sessions, with 1,000 invited faculty, and 4,000 abstract presentations; all from the world’s leaders in cardiovascular disease.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Published research suggests that cholesterol levels commonly rise as people age and then decrease later in life. Abnormal lipids are important risk factors that play a critical role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, identifying modifiable risk factors that can affect lipid profiles might help reduce the burden of CVD. Some previous analyses have explored the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on changes in blood glucose and blood pressure and have shown beneficial changes with higher CRF levels. However, few studies have looked at the effect of CRF on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins. With the high percentage of sedentary people living in the United States, it is particularly important to understand the specific benefits of exercise and fitness and the roles they play in health.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Recent reports have shown that coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to be a leading cause of death among Americans despite a remarkable decline in cardiovascular deaths related to the disease over the past several decades. CHD mortality rates fell by as much as 52% in men and 49% in women between 1980 and 2002, according to some research. However, other data suggests that these beneficial trends may not have been experienced by all demographic groups. A 2007 study showed that there was a dramatic slowing in the average annual rate of decline of CHD mortality among adults aged 35 to 54. Younger women appeared to be a particularly vulnerable patient group in this analysis.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free
0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Studies have shown that elevated triglyceride levels can increase risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and premature cardiovascular death. The American Heart Association also notes that high levels of triglycerides have been linked to type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. For adults with elevated triglycerides, experts have recommended several therapeutic lifestyle changes, including increased physical activity, weight loss, optimal nutrition-related practices, and smoking cessation. These lifestyle modifications can be very effective in lowering triglyceride levels in adults. Studies also suggest that medications like statins, omega-3 fatty acids, and other therapies may be helpful in lowering triglyceride levels.

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Standard: Free

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Although mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States has been declining since the 1970s, the burden of the disease remains high, accounting for nearly 32% of all deaths in the U.S., according to recent data. Research suggests that the prevalence of CVD in the U.S. will rise 10% between 2010 and 2030. This change in the trajectory of cardiovascular burden is the result of an aging population as well as a dramatic rise in obesity and the hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity that accompanies weight gain. Considering this altered trajectory, it’s important to think about the role of social issues in the management of CVD.


Activities Included:

CME Information

Content

Quiz

Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Studies suggest that ICDs are underutilized in routine clinical practice, especially after a patient suffers a myocardial infarction (MI). The incidence of MI and the resulting sequelae from these events increase with age. The benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) as primary prevention is controversial among older patients because this population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Clinicians may be uncertain about the efficacy of ICDs in an older patient population and must also consider treatment goals and procedural risks. These factors may discourage the use of ICDs among older adults.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

According to published research, the number of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased dramatically over the past few decades, with many people now living into the geriatric age range. This improved longevity has led to greater use of various types of care from the medical system. As adults with CHD live longer, healthcare providers need to be better prepared to diagnose, follow up, and treat this patient group. The key challenge lies in training physicians to be equipped to manage this population.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Studies have shown that patients with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) often have higher risk for cardiovascular events than those without RTIs. However, these studies have mostly assessed risk within the first few months after an RTI. Investigations that have assessed long-term risk have had conflicting results. By better characterizing the short- and long-term risks of CVD after an RTI, clinicians may be able to clarify whether these infections are risk factors for CVD and help explain the short- and long-term morbidity and mortality among patients with RTIs.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Studies have shown that isolated systolic hypertension (ISH)—defined as having a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher with a diastolic BP less than 90 mm Hg—is associated with elevated risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older adults. There has been a sense among clinicians that ISH is a benign condition in younger people. This had led some experts to label ISH as pseudo-hypertension, but the data to support this belief are limited. Few studies have looked at ISH in younger patients, despite research suggesting that its prevalence has increased in younger and middle-aged adults in recent years.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Several clinical trials have shown that heart failure (HF) patients who undergo a rigorous 36-week cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program that focuses on aerobic exercise training are more capable of controlling shortness of breath symptoms and are better able to perform daily activities, such as walking and climbing stairs. Current guidelines recommend CR in medically stable outpatients with HF, but few studies have examined temporal trends and factors associated with CR referral among these patients in real-world practices.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases among adults in the United States. The risk for developing PAD increases as people age and are exposed to specific atherosclerosis risk factors. Previous published research has linked continued tobacco use to an increasing number of heart attacks and strokes, worsened claudication, increased amputations, aneurysms, exposure to costly medical procedures, and death in people with PAD. Tobacco use has been identified as an important preventable cause of PAD and is a major determinant of adverse clinical outcomes. Surprisingly, no prior studies have specifically explored the contribution of tobacco use to short-term healthcare utilization and medical costs in PAD.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free

0.5 hours | ACCME, ANCC

COURSE DESCRIPTION

In 1999, the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) published a joint statement focusing on CVD prevention in diabetes. In 2007, the AHA and ADA issued a combined set of recommendations that described primary prevention of CVD in diabetes. Since the last update was issued, several new clinical trials have emerged that have changed the clinical practice of CVD risk management in diabetes. Given the changes in the diabetes landscape over the past several years, the AHA and ADA have developed a new updated scientific statement.

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Evaluation

Standard: Free